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The growth of the global economy has also resulted in a greater demand for energy. However, not every country can meet its own energy demands through domestic production, and the global energy trade – notably coal, oil, and natural gas – is crucial for many countries to maintain a growing economy. In the global push toward decarbonization, many countries are finding it difficult to replace their hydrocarbon-based energy imports with domestic renewables like wind and solar.
Currently, solar and wind energy are only transferred via electrical power lines, but most energy import schemes look beyond electricity. Hydrogen, synthetic methane, ammonia, and many other renewable energy carriers are being evaluated today. To identify the optimal energy carrier to import renewable energy, a new framework is needed.